How Astronauts Land on the Moon - Smarter Every Day 250

Vitenskap og teknologi

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A very special thank you to Wayne Ottinger
Check out the AMAZING website by Ben Feist that synchronizes all Apollo data:
I had to find a lot of archival footage to make this video. Thanks to Devin for helping me find the original Apollo LLTV footage from Ellington.
A special thank you to steveslater1987 for providing the footage and audio of the Neil Armstrong Interview after flying the LLTV.
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Warm Regards,


  • SmarterEveryDay
    SmarterEveryDayMåned siden

    We're going back to the moon, and we're going to need to train Astronauts how to land. This video is the result of trying to understand that control problem better. in the next video of this series, I'll show you footage from an actual NASA Lunar Lander software test I participated in many years ago. Also, I'd like to say express grateful I am to everyone who supports Smarter Every Day on Patreon at . If you've never considered being a Patreon of Smarter Every Day, then feel free to click the link if you'd like to see what it's all about. If not, then no big deal! I'm grateful that you're here. Warm Regards, Destin

  • Gavin AndStuff

    Gavin AndStuff

    5 dager siden

    Pshhhhh old news. I could land on the moon.

  • adam philp

    adam philp

    6 dager siden

    Yyhqara6 you

  • Almaadin


    7 dager siden

    @MaGaO true, but the software to land reliably is fairly new and getting better all the time. Most of the failed Mars landings happened without the benefit of the sensors and algorithms available now. It's still best to train the pilots of course.

  • MaGaO


    8 dager siden

    @Almaadin Many Mars probes have crashed. If humans are aboard, it makes sense to train them just in case.

  • hernan jimenez

    hernan jimenez

    8 dager siden

    @Almaadin that was done on gullible lol. Mars supposedly is 1% density of earth atmosphere. which means no air. an you need air to slow parachute and need air for lift when they eventually fly helicopter drone. so the impossible without air debunks your Mars landing 😂😂😂😂😂😂😂🤣🤣🤣🤣😭😭😭😭😂🤣🤣🤣🤣😂😭😭

    HERGRYN6 timer siden

    3:20 nice tracking Destin!

  • Joe O'Connor
    Joe O'Connor12 timer siden

    But if NASA can program a robot to drop another robot on Mars all on its own. Why do astronauts need to land on the moon on their own? Is it not safer to use the programming? No atmosphere seems like it would create a very consistent and reliable medium to program for, then you don't need to add the possibility of human error in landing.

  • TheSharko123
    TheSharko12316 timer siden

    If i recall correctly wasn't the Harrier also flying the late 60's?

  • Ean E
    Ean E18 timer siden

    1:58 Whaaaaa?

  • Sunken Slinky
    Sunken Slinky20 timer siden

    I wish the U.S still strived to be #1 and invest money into space rather then using our tax dollars to give other countries welfare all the time. It's a shame to think about how far ahead we would be if we were isolationist and reinvested our own money into our own economy.

  • Jamane Ma Raas Hollington
    Jamane Ma Raas Hollington20 timer siden

    You should have worn an omega speedmaster motm

  • Jamane Ma Raas Hollington

    Jamane Ma Raas Hollington

    20 timer siden

    Great video

  • Jeremiah Johnston
    Jeremiah Johnston21 time siden

    Silly. That can’t land on the moon. Flat Earth Baby

  • Lukas Smith
    Lukas Smith22 timer siden

    Neil Armstrong... Boiler Up!!

  • Notable Discomfort
    Notable DiscomfortDag siden

    Imagine if they had Kerbal Space Program back then.

  • Dizzi
    DizziDag siden


  • Michael B
    Michael BDag siden

    Incredible stuff. A truly great group of minds. You will never be thanked enough, Mr. Armstrong. Rest peacefully among the stars.

  • Josh Lounsberry
    Josh LounsberryDag siden

    You should continue your playlist on lawn tools do an episode on rotary hedge trimmers

  • gambler
    gamblerDag siden

    Every day...

  • Ankur Debbarma
    Ankur DebbarmaDag siden

    Please get Michael Collins and Buzz Aldrin together.

  • Ankur Debbarma
    Ankur DebbarmaDag siden

    Destin got hold of a LEGEND.

  • Matthew Sikora
    Matthew Sikora2 dager siden

    I tried to watch this with a straight face, but I simply cannot!

  • flameceo
    flameceo2 dager siden

    wtheck NOlocal. why you hide Dustin update from my subs page? Luckily I search smarterEveryDay out of curiosity.

  • Some Canine
    Some Canine2 dager siden

    Goes to show you how much we take all of the technical tools for granted. I imagine engineers will pre-program all of the error correction techniques in a computer for the re-return, but the Apollo crew never had that. They had to do everything with mechanics and training. I think it will be much less of a technical challenge on each individual person, but still a staggering engineering feat overall.

  • Gratten Jenkins
    Gratten Jenkins2 dager siden

    Thank you, what a very interesting and informative video

  • sterlingwulf RBLX
    sterlingwulf RBLX2 dager siden

    how much would be saved in fuel weight if the rocket first stage was accelerated on a maglev ramp before first stage engine ignition? seems like maglev trains are similar sizable payload can be accelerated to high speeds using electricity and starting a rocket to escape velocity from maglev speeds would have a huge impact compared to starting from a standstill

  • Drunk Astronaut
    Drunk Astronaut2 dager siden

    Can you do a video on the “ Tennis Racquet Theorem” aka “Dzhanibekov Effect”

  • LoungeActVideos
    LoungeActVideos3 dager siden

    Someone get Mr Ottinger's half burnt snake cartoon made.

  • Brian Huntington
    Brian Huntington3 dager siden

    I absolutely love this video!! My Grandfather was a Quality Control Engineer with NASA and worked on every APOLLO mission!! My Grandfather oversaw the manufacture and installation of the battery systems of the lunar lander! A secret my Grandfather told me before he passed afew years back was. Before they affixed the housing of the batteries, my Grandfather and his crew had a bronze plaque made with their names inscibed on it. They attached it to the top of the housing that covered the batteries!!!! This could have caused a mass firing event if they were caught!!! So now my Grandfather's name is on the moon! This I am very proud of! Just thought you might like to hear the story.

  • Shawn Hunter
    Shawn Hunter3 dager siden

    to land on the moon you have to buy AMC and GME

  • nxlxn
    nxlxn3 dager siden

    RIP Neil Armstrong. Yes it's been 9 years, but he was all of us.

  • R Я
    R Я3 dager siden


  • Saran O.p
    Saran O.p4 dager siden


  • Sudeep R
    Sudeep R4 dager siden

    So they essentially made a CNC machine that controls the craft?

  • Darth Insidious
    Darth Insidious4 dager siden

    NASA : Does all of this Some incel on the internet : "MoOn LaNdInG wAs FaKe!"

  • Michael Condon
    Michael Condon4 dager siden

    I’m looking forward to seeing more videos on returning to the moon. Especially to see what the engineers come up with for a test vehicle to fly here on earth.

  • John Doe p144.1
    John Doe p144.14 dager siden

    Nasa openly admits that humans cannot safely travel through the Van Allen Belts.... Yet this problem was solved in 1969-1972. What gives?

  • Atlas


    3 dager siden

    @John Doe p144.1 The most important bits, like video and audio, sure. Telemetry, not so much, unless of course you're dealing with a severe malfunction, like in Apollo 13. In that case, keeping the telemetry tapes makes sense, and they did.

  • John Doe p144.1

    John Doe p144.1

    3 dager siden

    @Atlas I hear what your saying but at the same time the moon landing was THE most significant scientific achievement in human history... Wouldn't you think that is something that would be held onto and cherished for generations?

  • Atlas


    3 dager siden

    @John Doe p144.1 It's a shame they lost the original tapes. But I supposed it made sense for them to be erased, since the video signal had been archived elsewhere and keeping telemetry around isn't standard.

  • John Doe p144.1

    John Doe p144.1

    3 dager siden

    @Atlas OK, fair enough. What about the fact that Nasa "lost" over 13,000 reels of telemetry data. Also contributing to the official explanation as to why we haven't been back to the moon.

  • Atlas


    3 dager siden

    @John Doe p144.1 Not really. The rocket used in the Apollo program is no longer manufactured. The last Saturn V was made nearly half a century ago. Can't send people beyond LEO without a a massive rocket.

  • chau do
    chau do4 dager siden

    The Plan is good! Hopefully it will happen soon! I would like to see human beings will be traveling to the Moon for their vacations and back to the earth! And then Human being will develop the advantage technologies to travel to other planets to live, working, vacation, ...... and back to the Mother Earth!

  • Nighthawk
    Nighthawk4 dager siden

    I don't know about you.... but these prototype propulsion techniques, if they were ever snatched by the military and repurposed for military vehicles,.... and IF one, or some, if any, of those prototypes were seen by the public.... there's a really good chance they'd look like flying saucers, to the layman. think about it... 1964 era, middle of the space race, lots of UFO sightings, and now we know that NASA had a *FREAKING VTOL PROTOTYPE* ?!?!?!??!

  • Chris Gonzalez
    Chris Gonzalez4 dager siden

    The immense drawbridge laparoscopically kill because submarine coincidentally jail above a tame parent. big, moldy slice

  • Zoltán Kozma
    Zoltán Kozma4 dager siden

    Am I missing something here? Why wouldn't they try to evenly fill the system with helium compartments or vacuum? Would that be beyond the limit of how much that volume could lift compared to the weight of the lunar lander?

  • Travis James
    Travis James4 dager siden

    Wayne is a national treasure. I love AMERICA!!!!!!!

  • Darp
    Darp4 dager siden

    Among us??!!!

    FILM N SHOOT CO4 dager siden

    My pal Jonathan Dimock works for NASA. He’s the man who speaks to the president re NASA biz. My pal Johnathan had zeroooo experience to have got this job....

  • The Revolution Will Not Be Televised
    The Revolution Will Not Be Televised4 dager siden

    The X-14 is basically a copy of the British Hawker Siddeley P.1127. Which later became the Harrier Jump jet.

  • Dwagin Con
    Dwagin Con4 dager siden

    1:44 sus

  • Vincent Pang
    Vincent Pang5 dager siden

    The lumpy gender phenomenologically request because plastic univariately grin through a acoustic grain. wiry, clammy magazine

  • Who Farted
    Who Farted5 dager siden

    How did they know the lunar gravitational force before going to the moon?

  • Ася Гумерова
    Ася Гумерова5 dager siden

    Эти "проэкты"-возможность воровать общие деньги,играть во взрослые игрушки и не быть наказанным,а быть "уважаемыми космическими ворами" Я предпологаю.что верхушка США и СССР были в сговоре и много лет смеялись над доверчивыми гражданами...

  • Chas Wolf
    Chas Wolf5 dager siden

    We all see drones, and the amazing technology they use to fly straight, steady, and in some cases, autonomously. I'm sure there is a tie-in here.

  • Brandon Routier
    Brandon Routier5 dager siden

    Didnt the Harrier fly in 1967?

  • djmips
    djmips5 dager siden

    What actually happens on the moon landing(s) low-key confirmed by his guest Ben Feist is that the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) does all of the flying until final approach where Armstrong and other astronauts use the rate-of-decent mode (P66), a mode not unlike drones for the home market where the stabilization is handled by the AGC and Neil uses the fly by wire stick to control horizontal velocity, avoid a boulder field and then bring bring the horizontal velocity to zero; another two switches can speed up or slow down the computers rate of descent in increments of one foot per second. I know the LLTV also had a computer. How similar was it's stabilization and controls to the actual LEM and the AGC's P66?

  • el blanco _
    el blanco _5 dager siden

    Man, the engineer of the LLTV, what a treasure!

  • Dylan Wager Music
    Dylan Wager Music5 dager siden

    1:45 1:58

  • Adam Armstrong
    Adam Armstrong5 dager siden

    i dont want to be apart of this planet anymore

  • TheEmeraldSword
    TheEmeraldSword5 dager siden

    4:06 the the angle dynamically shook with his hands, now that's detail.

  • Kerrie Arkwell
    Kerrie Arkwell5 dager siden

    This was an amazing video. Thank you. Understanding the why truly is as pertinent as the how. If you understand the why, then engineers can use updated techniques if possible instead of just repeating work arounds.

  • Dan Bertucci
    Dan Bertucci5 dager siden

    The communists now in charge want nothing to do with moon landings anyway, so...

  • SlayerofFiction
    SlayerofFiction5 dager siden

    I don't even drink and I want the lunar shot glass

  • Gert Kruger
    Gert Kruger5 dager siden

    I really do not see the point. The next one will be landed by ai.

  • KatzRool
    KatzRool6 dager siden


  • DrCash7
    DrCash76 dager siden

    4:30 "and if there were no drag.." If there were no drag then there would be no thrust/movement. Just like if there were no weight/gravity there would be no lift.

  • DrCash7
    DrCash76 dager siden


  • Ephraim
    Ephraim6 dager siden

    Would be quite impossible to control Starship HLS by hand. Will be autonomous.

  • Dhoulmegus
    Dhoulmegus6 dager siden

    NASA scientists shoulda just played Kerbal Space Program. I was landing on the Mun as a teenager.

  • strshooter
    strshooter6 dager siden

    Well done video, learned a lot, (like there are still people that think we didn’t go to the moon, and the earth is flat. I’m sure there are still those that think Hitler didn’t murder millions of people in death camps...) My question is, why go back to the moon? What’s there that we can benefit people? It will cost billions of dollars, tax dollars, just to say we can it? It’s a moon with ... not much on it. The distances to leave our solar system to anyway else are just too far away. Sorry, this isn’t Star Trek, or some other fantasy TV show... .

  • maksphoto78
    maksphoto786 dager siden

    Nah uh, they didn't "make sure velocity is zero when touching the surface". They had probes sticking out of lander which, when the probes touched the surface, automatically shut the engine down (while still some meters above the ground), so the lander gently dropped to the ground.

  • Doritos XD
    Doritos XD6 dager siden

    1:58 among us 🤑🤑🤙👌👍

  • Kevin Palmer
    Kevin Palmer6 dager siden

    Your questions and the way his eyes lit up. Surprised and also happy to see someone younger understanding his knowledge. Awesome

  • Spo8
    Spo86 dager siden

    Mr. Ottinger is SO COOL. Man, you just know he has countless other amazing stories.

  • kkcsak ndclon
    kkcsak ndclon6 dager siden

    The wild patricia univariably influence because belief exemplarily sigh unlike a flashy comic. aromatic, lethal lyocell

  • Omadais
    Omadais6 dager siden

    Please do a video on the X-14

  • The Bloody Truth
    The Bloody Truth6 dager siden

    Back to the moon? 😅

  • Ciorram1
    Ciorram16 dager siden

    Comment for algorithm.

  • Leandro Gogola
    Leandro Gogola6 dager siden

    I confess, Mr. Ottinger make me laugh a few times. What a great man

  • Dadly25
    Dadly256 dager siden

    1:45 when the impostor is sus

  • Ron Burghandy

    Ron Burghandy

    4 dager siden

    I knew there'd be at least one lol

  • DavyBoySmith
    DavyBoySmith6 dager siden

    Destin, I have a friend who has an LLTV sitting in his shed at work. I was fortunate enough to get a tour of his "work" and I can honestly say as much fun as it looks... yeah, no... His work is the same AFRC mentioned in your video. I was most impressed by the Peroxide thrusters mounted on every corner and axis of the unit. A tour of the Armstrong facility was the most incredible thing I have had the opportunity to experience. if you are ever there ask about the LLTV and perhaps they can take you to the closet for a look see. God Bless you man, I love your take on science.

  • Egon Pax
    Egon Pax6 dager siden

    We aren’t going back to the moon, not with lunchbox Joe in power.

  • Brian Huntington

    Brian Huntington

    3 dager siden

    obama and biden almost destroyed the Space industry! I live in Brevard county. TRUMP brought back space flights and the area is growing immensely!! Everyone is scared biden is going to do somthing stupid, again!

  • Brian Huntington

    Brian Huntington

    3 dager siden

    Very true

  • gordonfree man
    gordonfree man7 dager siden

    Everybody know Apollo is a big lie

  • Atlas


    6 dager siden


  • Binky Carolina
    Binky Carolina7 dager siden


  • John Bravo
    John Bravo7 dager siden

    @ 5:45 ---> food for thought, the Harrier Jump Jet was first tested in 1967 and introduced into service in '69... 😉

  • Florian Walter
    Florian Walter7 dager siden

    Why not installing a helium baloon, that lifts 5/6 of the lander's weight?

  • Super Song
    Super Song7 dager siden

    at this point this man knows too much to be safe 🙏😂

  • Ryan Rich
    Ryan Rich7 dager siden

    Where is the loud roar of the rocket when you hear them calmly talking as lunar is landing?

  • Ryan Rich

    Ryan Rich

    7 dager siden

    @Atlas nms was tight

  • Atlas


    7 dager siden

    It's a pressure fed engine firing in a vacuum, come on.

  • Hirvieläin
    Hirvieläin7 dager siden

    I would assume the lander's computer will perform the descent and landing in Artemis program.

  • Suphakrit Phantharat
    Suphakrit Phantharat7 dager siden

    Why do we need manual landing when we sent multiple rovers to mars and it has ability to auto land with high precision

  • Bogdan Bogdan
    Bogdan Bogdan7 dager siden

    15:55 oh my ghaad

  • Bread Spreader
    Bread Spreader7 dager siden

    1:45 kinda sus....

  • Patar
    Patar7 dager siden

    They actually planned on hitting the moon harder, the crunch pistons on the legs didn't get crunched all the way, that's why their steps are more awkward than usual, edit, because the ladder was hooked on the leg

  • Rooster Original
    Rooster Original7 dager siden

    Hahaha cant wait til you debunk it by looking into it :)

  • Atlas


    6 dager siden

    @DrCash7 there really isn't

  • DrCash7


    6 dager siden

    @Atlas nOtHinG to DeBuNK heRe FolKS

  • Atlas


    7 dager siden

    There's nothing to debunk.

  • britshell
    britshell7 dager siden

    How? miniatures and a sound stage...

  • mikenco
    mikenco7 dager siden

    That was fascinating! Very few people are qualified to call Neil Armstrong an idiot! lol

  • The Internet
    The Internet7 dager siden

    I think what you're saying, that we need to learn about *why* decisions were made, is really the root of the "teach a man to fish" adage, and it's such a huge issue with the way I see things being taught. Don't give people the answer, give people the tools to find the answer.

  • Phineas G
    Phineas G7 dager siden

    Folks at NASA are probably taking notes rn.

  • Black Panther
    Black Panther7 dager siden

    Why does the velocity have to be zero upon landing? Why not near zero?

  • Lavalambtron
    Lavalambtron7 dager siden

    You're making it too easy for tomorrow's kids, they will look like geniuses but instead it was all on youtube.

  • Some Ones

    Some Ones

    7 dager siden

    The power of technology.

  • Laura White
    Laura White7 dager siden

    never went to the moon brah. hash tag moon landing hoax

  • Atlas


    7 dager siden

    @Laura White I have better things to do than watch conspiracy videos. That said, I never came across a good hoaxer argument.

  • Laura White

    Laura White

    7 dager siden

    Atlas gee what a convincing retort Atlas. See “American Moon” on YT and then try to tell me it’s not possible that something’s up with the official narrative.

  • Atlas


    7 dager siden


  • David Madsen
    David Madsen7 dager siden

    You are truly a treasure! I so appreciate all of your videos, they are some of the most wholesome and informative media out there.

  • Ian Thornton
    Ian Thornton8 dager siden


  • Asophos
    Asophos8 dager siden

    1:58 amongus

  • Some Ones

    Some Ones

    7 dager siden


  • Wyrylka
    Wyrylka8 dager siden

    1:44 I can't take this anymore make the pain stop

  • Bears


    6 dager siden

    Kinda sus

  • Aidan Gavin
    Aidan Gavin8 dager siden


  • Konnies Egg
    Konnies Egg8 dager siden

    Thanks for the tutorial, just got invited to a Martian party. Heading out tomorrow night.

  • goutvols103
    goutvols1038 dager siden

    Another great video. It would be interesting to know more about the rocket motor that was on the lander and got it back to the orbiter. I had read something where the NASA engineers made it as simple as possible; without any electrical connections to reduce points of failure. It was basically just a mixing of two (2) chemicals by means of the turning of two (2) mechanical valves. Thanks in advance.

  • Carl Carter
    Carl Carter8 dager siden

    I flew a test device in Grumman hangar 5 over a mosaic set of lunar photos. All I had was a mockup of the LM cockpit. I made 3 test landing attempts for evaluation data. 50 years later I toured the hangar at the Cape Canaveral facility and in an alcove next to the Saturn V rocket was the same unit I tested at the Grumman facility. I worked at Grumman for 30+ years on the A-6 Intruder , the F-14 Tomcat,and The JSTARS . Fun years!